adhridha: not strong

adhyaropa: superimposition

adhyasika: superimposed

advaita: a system of thought and a vedantist sect founded by Shankara that emphasizes non-duality

adya: original

adyatmika sakti: power of the individual soul or can refer to power of God

agami: actions of the present life expected to bear out in future lives

agni: fire (in Ayurveda, also related to digestive system as in “digestive fire”)

aham: the ego; soul; the sense of “I”

aham Brahmasmi: I am spirit

aham Spuhrana: the pulsation of bliss in the heart

aham svarupa: one’s authentic nature

aham vritti: the ‘I’ thought

ahankara: I’ sense; ego-self, ‘the doer’

ahimsa: non-violence (the first jewel of the Yamas or restraints) the foundation to all guidelines to live; do what you want without causing harm to others.

ajna: an order; a direction

ajnana: a form of ignorance, or the false apprehension of reality that keeps the soul from attaining release; it is a form of mistaken knowledge.

ajnani: one who was not realized the Self; unenlightened

akara: form or shape; the first of the five material elements of which the physical universe is composed; also used to designate “inner” space, that is, the space of consciousness (called cid-akasha)

akasha: ether, space

alayavijnana: pure consciousness in buddhism

amrita: immortality; referred to as the drink of the gods (such as nectar or ambrosia) which grants them immortality.

amrianadi: the pathway or channel for the flow of consciousness from the Heart (Source) to the mind; the path by which it travels is termed archis

anadi: without beginning

ananda: bliss, happiness, joy

anandatman: the self in the bliss state

ananta: infinite, without end

anartha: evil; worthless

anatman: non-Self

anava: limitation

Anga: limb

anichcha: involuntary

anitya: temporary, fleeting, transitory

antah (antar): internal

antah karanam: the thinking power, means of perception

antardhana: disappearance from sight

antarmukkah drishti: gaze directed inward

antarmukti: mind direct inward

anu: atom

anubhava: experience, realization

anusthana: practice, conscious study, attainment of higher knowledge

anuttara samyak sambodhi: see samyak sambodhi

ap: water

apana: (“the air that moves away”) Apana’s energy moves primarily in the lower abdomen and the navel to the floor of the pelvis; this energy is waste-eliminating

apara: lower, inferior

aparoksha: direct experience (as opposed to sensory experience)

apavada: removal

arati: divine service performed in the early morning or at dusk, descended from the ancient concept of fire rituals.

archis: see amritanadi

Arjuna: (“White”)disciple of the supreme personality of Godhead Krishna whose teachings can be found in the Bhagavad Gita

artha: money, currency

arudha: attainment

aruna: red

arupa: formless

asamsakti: non attachment; one of the seven stages of enlightenment

asamskrta: not pertaining to the impermanent

asana: yogic posture, literally the seat of (a pose)

asat: unreal

asesha sakshi: witness of all

ashram: traditionally, a spiritual hermitage located in natural surroundings. contemporary usage does not necessarily require natural settings – and may relate to any community of practitioners, such as a studio or a dojo.

Ashrama: stage of life, such as brahmacharya, householder, forest dweller, and complete renouncer (samnyasin)

ashtanga yoga: Patanjali’s eight-limbed path, also called Raja Yoga. This yoga contains or should contain eight components, morality, ethics, posture, breath control, sense control, concentration, meditation, and absorption. Also the “brand” name for the style of yoga developed by Sri. K Pattabhi Jois with set sequence of yoga posture that take a student from A-Z in asana.

Asmita: (“I am spirit”): a concept of Patanjali’s eight-limbed yoga, roughly synonymous with ahamkara

asrama: one of the four life-stages of a spiritual seeker; dwelling of a sage and his followers

asraya: the floor of reality (as opposed to movement), the shelter

asthira: not steady, opposite of sthira

asuddha: bliss

asukavi: one who can spontaneously speak/compose verse

asura: demon; similar to a fallen angel

ati jagrat: beyond waking

ati sunya: beyond the void

atiasrama: beyond the four stages of life

atita: beyond

atma (atman): The self, soul or spirit

atma dhyana: contemplation of the soul

atma jnani: one who has realized the Self

atma prajna: Awareness of the soul

atma sakti: power of the soul

atma siddhi: Self Realization

atma vichara: inquiry into the Self

atma vidya: knowledge of the Self

atmasakshatkara: self-realization-enlightenment

Atman: (“self”): the transcendental Self, or Spirit, which is eternal and superconscious; our true nature or identity; There is a distinction between the atman the individual soul and the parama-atman the transcendental supereme Godhead.

Avadhuta: (“he who has shed [everything”) a radical type of renouncer (samnyasin)

Avidya: (“ignorance”) the root cause of suffering (duhkha)

Ayurveda: (“life science”): one of India’s traditional systems of medicine, the other being South India’s Siddha medicine. This ancient practice is known throughout the world as alternative medicine.


bahir pranayamam: external breath regulation

bahir mukha drishti: outward turned consciousness

bahir mukhi manas: letting the mind go out of the Heart; externalization

bahudaka: a sannyasin who wanders about

bahya: external

bala: child

bandha: bondage, also refers to lock (as in udiyana bandha, jalandara bandha, and mula bandha) or muscle locking/contraction, which focuses energy in the body and is closely tied to the breath.

bandha hetu: cause of bondage

Bhagavad-gita: (“Lord’s Song”) the oldest full-fledged yoga book found embedded in the Mahabharata and containing the teachings on karma yoga (the path of self-transcending action), samkhya yoga (the path of discerning the principles of existence correctly), and bhakti yoga (the path of devotion), as given by the God-man Krishna to Prince Arjuna on the battlefield 3,500 years or more ago

bhagavan: God; the Lord; one who has realized his true identity (the soul) and who God is.

Bhagavata-Purana: (“Ancient [Tradition] of the Bhagavatas”) a voluminous tenth-century scripture held sacred by the devotees of Vishnu.

bhajan (bhajana): worship (of the Lord); singing God’s praises, esp. in chorus

bhakta: devotee; disciple; the love of the bhakta toward the Divine or the guru

bhakti : devotion; love (of God)

bhakti marga: path of devotion

Bhakti-Sutra: (“Aphorisms on Devotion”) an aphoristic work on devotional yoga authored by Sage Narada

Bhakti Yoga: (“Yoga of devotion”): a major branch of yoga where the practicioner attains enlightenment through love and devotion to God.

bharata: shining soul

bhashyakara: commentator

bhavana: contemplation of a personified deity with great emotion

bheda: difference; differentiation

bhikshu: Buddhist monk, literally beggar

bhoga: enjoyment

bhogya vasta: child


bhogyam: that which is enjoyed

bhokta: enjoyer

bhuma: all-comprehensive; the Absolute

bhumika: stage

bhutatathata: the Absolute viewed as the universal womb

bija: seed; source

bija-mantra: a one-word seed-mantra or exclamation of power

Bindu: (“seed/point”) the creative potency of anything where all energies are focused; the dot (also called tilaka) worn on the forehead as indicative of the third eye

bodha: knowledge; Truth

bodhi: (“enlightenment”); full illumination; the opposite of avidya, the state of the awakened master, or buddha

bodhikaya: the body of the Absolute viewed as the fruit of enlightenment

Brahma: the Creator of the universe

brahmachari: a celibate; student stage of life; the discipline of chastity, which produces ojas

brahmacharya: celibacy

Brahmajnana: Knowledge of brahman

Brahmajnani: one who has realized brahman

Brahman: (“that which has grown expansive”) God aura; the white light. Done through Kundalini yoga, Brahman is the “white light realization” and the first aspect of God realization.

Brahmin: a member of the highest social class of traditional Indian society

Brahmanishta: one who is established in Brahman

Brahmarandhra: Brahma-aperature; opening in the crown of the head; fontanelle;

Brahmavid: one who has realized Brahman

Buddha: one who is aware

Buddha: (“awakened”) a designation of the person who has attained enlightenment (bodhi) and therefore inner freedom; honorific title of Siddhartha Gautama, the founder of Buddhism, who lived in the sixth century B.C.E.

buddhi: the higher mind, which is the seat of wisdom


chaitanya: Incarnation of God with the bodily color of gold.

chakra: wheel; part of the subtle body, corresponds to parts of the physical body. in Buddhist yoga, five such centers are known, while in Hindu yoga often seven or more such centers are mentioned: mula-adhara-cakra (muladhara-cakra) at the base of the spine, svadhishthana-cakra at the genitals, manipura-cakraat the navel, anahata-cakra at the heart, vishuddha-cakra or vishuddhi-cakra at the throat, ajna-cakra in the middle of the head, and sahasrara-cakra at the top of the head



chakshus: eye

chanchala: changing, fickle

chandrayana: atonement in the form of fasting in Hinduism

chela: student; disciple

chidabhasa: reflected consciousness

chidakash: consciousness

chidananda: One who is in bliss

chidvyoman (chitt vyoman): expanse of consciousness

chinmaya: full of consciousness

chinta: thought, idea

chintamani: wish-fulfilling gem

chit: Absolute Intelligence, universal consciousness; the superconscious ultimate Reality (see atman, brahman)

Citta (“that which is conscious”): ordinary consciousness, the mind, as opposed to cit

chitakasa: Mental ether (all-pervading)

chit jada granthi: the knot between pure consciousness and the insentient body; the ego

chitta: memory aspect of mind; the mental mode turned towards objects


chitta nirodha: control of mind

chitta suddhi: purity of mind

chitta vilasa: play of mind

chittaikograta: one-pointedness of mind

Chin-mudra: (“consciousness seal”): a common hand gesture (mudra) in meditation (dhyana), which is formed by bringing the tips of the index finger and the thumb together, while the remaining fingers are kept straight.


dahara vidya: contemplation of the Lord in the heart

dana: gift; alms; relinquishment

darsan(a): An opportunity to see a diety or spiritual teacher and to be seen by them.

dasi: courtesan

deha(m): body; existence

dehatma buddhi: I-am-the-body

dehavasana: attachment to the body

Deva: (“he who is shining”) a male deity, such as Shiva

devakanya: a class of minor female divinity

devata: a goddess

Devi: (“she who is shining”): a female deity such as Parvati or Lakshmi


dharana: “holding” concentration of mind; the sixth limb of Patanjali’s eight limbed stages of Raja Yoga

Dharma (“bearer”): a term of numerous meanings; often used in the sense of “lawfulness,” “virtue,” “righteousness,” “norm,” “way or path,” “virtuous deeds”

Dharmadhatu: the Absolute, i.e. the Dharma-Realm

Dharma Raja: the Buddha

dharma sastri: one well-versed in the scriptures relating to dharma

dhatu(s): humors; constituent elements of the body

dhriti: steadfastness

dhyana: meditation; contemplation;the seventh limb (anga) of Patanjali’s eight-limbed yoga

dhyana siddhi: successful meditation

dikpalas: gods who protect the various quarters

diksha: in traditional yoga, the initiation into a particular lineage of teachers for spiritual enlightenment

divya chakshus: divine eye

drashta: seer

dridha: firm

drik: he who sees; the subject

drishti: yogic gazing (for example, the tip of the nose or between the eyebrows)

drishti srishti: simultaneous creation

drisya: that which is seen; the object

drisya vilaya: disappearance of the objective world

drisyanuviddha: associated with something seen

Duhkha: In Buddhism, the belief that all things are suffering, due to the desire to seek permanence in material life

dvaita: duality

dvandva: pair of opposites

dvividha: two-fold


eka: one

ekagrata: concentration

ekanta vasa: free from mental concepts; “dwelling in mental solitude”


Ganapati: the elder son of Siva, the remover of obstacles; same as Ganesha, the chief of Siva’s hosts

ganja: a narcotic; hashish

ganapati: consciousness

ganesan: darkness

gate: gone

gatha: a verse, usually of a sacred kind

Gayatri: a sacred Vedic mantra

Gayatri-mantra: a famous Vedic mantra recited particularly at sunrise:

Gheranda-Samhita: (“[Sage] Gheranda’s Compendium”) one of three major manuals of classical hatha yoga, composed in the seventeenth century

gita: song

gnana: see jnana

gnani: see jnani



gopuram: monumental tower, usually ornate, at the entrance of any temple, especially in Southern India. They function as gateways through the walls that surround the temple complex.

Goraksha: (“Cow Protector”) traditionally said to be the founding adept of hatha yoga, a disciple of Matsyendra

gatha: a verse, usually of a sacred kind

Gayatri: a sacred Vedic mantra

Gayatri-mantra: a famous Vedic mantra recited particularly at sunrise:

Gheranda-Samhita: (“[Sage] Gheranda’s Compendium”) one of three major manuals of classical hatha yoga, composed in the seventeenth century

gita: song


gnana: see jnana

gnani: see jnani

gopuram: monumental tower, usually ornate, at the entrance of any temple, especially in Southern India. They function as gateways through the walls that surround the temple complex.

Goraksha: (“Cow Protector”) traditionally said to be the founding adept of hatha yoga, a disciple of Matsyendra

Granthi:(“knot”) any one of three common blockages in the central pathway (sushumna-nadi) preventing the full ascent of the serpent power (kundalini-shakti); the three knots are known asbrahma-granthi (at the lowest psychoenergetic center of the subtle body), the vishnu-granthi (at the heart), and the rudra-granthi (at the eyebrow center)

granthi nasam: destruction of the knot (of ignorance)

grihastha: householder

grihini: housewife


Guna: (“quality,” “positive attributes,” or “virtues,” “phase,” “mode”) a term that has numerous meanings. In the context of Bhagavad-gita and Sankhya philosophy there are three gunas of matter, or constituents of nature (prakriti): tamas (the principle of inertia), rajas (the dynamic principle), and sattva (the principle of lucidity) The word guna also means a rope or thread and it is sometimes said that beings are “roped” or “tied” into matter by the three gunas of material nature.


gunatita : one who has transcended the Gunas

Guru: a spiritual teacher

Guru-bhakti: (“teacher devotion”)a disciples love of the guru

Guru-Gita: (“Guru’s Song”)a text in praise of the guru, often chanted in ashramas

guru kripa: guru’s grace

Guru-Yoga: (“Yoga [relating to] the teacher”) a yogic approach that makes the guru the fulcrum of a disciple’s practice; all traditional forms of yoga contain a strong element of guru-yoga


jada: insentient

jaganmaya: the mystery of the world

jagat: world; changing

jagrat: waking state

jagrat sushupti: aware or awake while asleep; being aware but not concerned

jai: victory

Jaina: (sometimes Jain) pertaining to the jinas (“conquerors”), the liberated adepts of Jainism; a member of Jainism, the spiritual tradition founded by Vardhamana Mahavira, a contemporary of Gautama the Buddha



jala: water

janma: birth

Japa: (“muttering”) the recitation of mantras; repetition of a sacred word or syllable or name of God

japa karta: one who does japa

jirna: decayed

jiva: pure individual spirit soul

jivanmukta: (“he who is liberated while alive”) a realized soul; an adept who, while still embodied, has attained liberation (moksha)

jivanmukti: liberation while alive; the state of liberation while being embodied



jivatman: the individual soul

jivatman (“individual self”): the individuated soul, as opposed to the individual supersoul (parama-atman)

jnana(m): knowledge of the Absolute; enlightenment; Supreme Knowledge; Self-realization

jnana bhumika(s): stages of knowledge (seven)

jnana chakshus: eye of wisdom

jnana drishti: wisdom-insight

jnana grantha: Vedantic works

jnana lakshana: sign of wisdom

jnana marga: path of knowledge


jnana vichara: inquiry regarding knowledge

Jnana-Yoga: (“Yoga of wisdom”) the path to liberation based on wisdom, or the direct intuition of the transcendental soul (atman) through the steady application of discernment between the Real and the unreal and renunciation of what has been identified as unreal

jnanagni: fire of wisdom

jnanameva chakshus: All-seeing eyes

jnanendriya: sense organ

jnani : sage; one who has realized the Self

jothi: light; radiance (“auspicious flame”)


ichcha: wish, desire; will

idam: a Sansksrit pronoun, “this”

Ida-nadi: a subtle energy stream, Ida Nadi is associated with lunar or feminine energy, and has a cooling or calming effect on the mind when activated. Ida Nadi controls all mental processes. Originates in the right testicle and ends in the left nostril.



Indra: Lord of the devas; first student of Brahma vidya, the god of rain and thunder

indriya(s): senses, often refers to physical strength or ability.

Isa: Supreme Lord Isa is one of the words used for God as the supreme controller. The word is also used to refer to any being or personality who is in control.

ishta devata: the god one likes to worship

 Ishvara (“ruler”): the Lord; referring to the Creator

Ishvara anugraha: God’s grace

Isvara drishti: seeing God

Isvara prasada: God’s grace

Ishvara-pranidhana: (“dedication to the Lord”) in Patanjali’s eight-limbed yoga one of the practices of self-restraint (niyama); see also bhakti yoga; surrendering to God, a “big picture” in a yoga practice.

 Isvara svarupa: the true form of God

Iynegar Yoga: Iyengar Yoga created by B.K.S. Iyengar is a form of yoga known for its use of props, such as belts and blocks, as in aids in performing asanas (postures). This style of yoga is extremely alignment based and the asanas are often practiced individually.


Hanuman: a powerful demi-god, son of the Wind god; great devotee of Sri Rama; famous monkey who helped Rama in his fight with Ravana (monkey god). In hatha yoga, The yogi pushes one leg forward and one leg backwards until they are in the splits position as in hanumanasana, dedicated to the Monkey god.

Hamsa: (“swan/gander”) apart from the literal meaning, this term also refers to the breath (prana) as it moves within the body; the individuated consciousness (jiva) propelled by the breath; see jiva-atman; see also parama-hamsa

hamsa: advanced sannyasi



hasta: hand

Hatha Yoga: (“Forceful Yoga”) Major branch of yoga, developed by Kaplia and other adepts emphasizing the physical postures (asana) and breath control (pranayama). These exercises are designed to have a salutary effect on posture, flexibility, and strength and are intended ultimately to prepare the body to remain still for long periods of time as in mediation.

Hatha yoga has also been translated as ha meaning “sun” and tha meaning “moon” balancing the masculine and feminine aspects of the practice.

Hatha-Yoga-Pradipika: (“Light on Hatha Yoga”) one of three classical manuals on hatha yoga, authored by Svatmarama Yogendra in the fourteenth century

hetu: cause, reason

hinayana: one of the two major divisions of Buddhism; prevalent in Southeast Asia

hiranyagarbha: (“golden womb” or “golden germ”) The creator


homa: sacrifice in fire

hridaya(m): heart; spiritual center of the body

hridaya granthi: knot of the heart; the idea that one is one’s body

hrit: heart

hrit pundarika: the heart lotus


Kailas: a mountain in the Himalayas said to be the home of Siva

Kaivalya: is the ultimate goal of yoga and means “solitude” or “detachment” is one of the synonyms of moksha, as are apavarga, mukti, nirvana, and yogakṣema.

Kali:A Demi-Goddess embodying the fierce

kali yuga: the last of the four ages of the world; the dark age of spiritual and moral decline, said to be current now

kalpana: idea; imagination of the mind; creation

Kama: (“desire”) the appetite for sensual pleasure blocking the path to true bliss (ananda); the only desire conducive to freedom is the impulse toward liberation, called mumukshutva

kantha: throat

kanthabharana: neck ornament

kanya: virgin

Kapila: (“He who is red”): Originator of Sankhya yoga; is a Yuga avatar (which means this avatar appears in the beginning of every Satya Yuga)

kara: a combining form meaning achieved or achievement

karana: cause

karana sarira: causal body; generally refers to the highest or innermost subtle body that veils the true soul.

karma: work; deeds; also the result of action or activity of any kind, including ritual acts.The total effect of a person’s actions and conduct during the successive phases of the person’s existence, regarded as determining the person’s destiny.In Hinduism and Buddhism, the sum of a person’s actions in this and previous states of existence, viewed as deciding their fate in future existences.

karma marga: path of ritual, religious duties, and action

karma samya: good and bad actions in equal proportions

karma traya: the three kinds of karma, namely sanchita, agami and prarabdha

Karma Yoga: (“Yoga of action”) the liberating path of self-transcending action

karmendriya : organ of action

karpura arati: the waving of lighted camphor during puja

karta: he who does an act; doer

kartrtva: doership

Karuna: compassion

kashaya: latent impurity or passions, these are aspects of a person that can be gained during his or her worldly life. According to the Jaina religion as long as a person has Kashayas, they will not escape the cycle of life and death. There are four different kind of Kashayas, each being able to gain their own kinds of intensity.The four kasaya are: krodha (anger), lobha (greed), mana (ego) and maya (deceit).

Kasaya: ochre-colored garment; the robes of Buddhist monks and nuns, named after a brown or saffron dye

kayakalpa: medicinal preparation for prolonging life

kayasiddhi : making the body proof against injury

kendra: center; heart

kartrtva buddhi: sense of being the doer

kevala kumbhaka: retention of breath leading to stilling of the mind

kevala nirvikalpa: the state of remaining without concepts; bliss

khanda: division

Khecari-mudra: (“space-walking seal”) the Tantric practice of curling the tongue back against the upper palate in order to seal the life energy (prana)

khyati: theory

kirtan: call and response chanting

klesa: a defilement, passion etc.

kousalam: skill

kosha: (“sheath” or “casing”) Levels of awareness; stages of individual growth to whole societies. There are five “casings” surrounding the transcendental soul(atman) anna-maya-kosha (“casing made of food,” the physical body), prana-maya-kosha (“casing made of life force”), mano-maya-kosha (“casing made of mind”),vijnana-maya-kosha (“casing made of consciousness”), and ananda-maya-kosha (“casing made of bliss”); traditions regard the last kosha as the souls true state

krama mukti: liberation by degrees

krama srishti: gradual creation

krida: pastime

Krishna: (“All attractive”) the supreme personality of Godhead whose teachings can be found in the Bhagavad Gita and the Bhagavata-Purana.

kritopasaka: one who has done upasana or meditation

kriya physical action

krodha: anger

kshanti: patience, forbearance and forgiveness. It is one of the practices of perfection (paramita) of both Theravada and Mahayana Buddhism.

kshetra: temple; or place of pilgrimage

Kshetrajna: the conscious principle (Knower) in the field of the body; the absolute witness of the three states of the self – waking, dream and sleep

kshipta: active

kumbha: pot used for keeping water

kumbhaka: retention of breath

kumkuma: vermilion powder applied to the forehead

Kundalini: primordial cosmic energy located in the individual; mystic circle of three and a half coils situated in the umbilical region; yogic principle of serpent power

Kundalini-shakti: (“coiled power”) according to Tantra and hatha yoga, the serpent power or subtle energy, which exists in potential form at the lowest psycho-energetic center of the body (i.e., the mula-adhara-cakra) and which must be awakened and guided to the center at the crown (i.e., the sahasrara-cakra) for full brahman enlightenment to occur

Kundalini-Yoga: the yogic path focusing on the kundalini process as a means of liberation

kutichaka: a sannyasin who lives permanently in a hut

kuvasana: bad tendency


Laya Yoga: (“Yoga of dissolution”) is also called Kundalini Yoga; an advanced form or process of Tantric yoga by which the various psycho-energetic centers of the subtle body are gradually dissolved through the ascent of the serpent power (kundalini-shakti)

laghu: light; easy

lakshana: sign; definition

lakshya: aim; target; goal; attention

lakshyartha: implied meaning


laya: dissolution; cling;

lila: Pastime

Linga: (“mark”) the phallus as a principle of creativity; a symbol of the demi-god Shiva

linga sarira: subtle body

loka: world; that which is seen

loukika: worldly


madhya: center; mixed; middling

madhyama: one who is in an intermediate position

mahadakash: the entire universe; world of action

maha: great

Mahabharata : (“Great Bharata”) one of India’s two great ancient epics telling of the great war between the Pandavas and the Kauravas and serving as a repository for many spiritual and moral teachings

Maha Rishi: great rishi or sage

mahaparinirvana: ultimate Nirvana (Nirvana can be achieved in this lifetime; ultimate Nirvana then follows at death)

mahasunya: great void

mahat: intellectual principle as source of ahankara

mahat tattva (mahattava): when God manifest the unmanifested world

Mahatma: (from maha-atman, “great soul”) an honorific title bestowed on particularly meritorious individuals, such as Gandhi

mahavakya(s): The great sayings

Mahayana: (“Great Vehicle”) is one of the two main existing branches of Buddhism and a term for classification of Buddhist philosophers and practice. Mahayana Buddhism originated in India and some scholars believe that it was initially associated with one of the oldest historical branches of Buddhism, the Mahasamghika



Mahayana Mahaparinirvana Sutra: also commonly known as the Nirvana Sutra.

chronicles the final moments of Buddha’s life through narrative.

Mahesvara: Another name for shiva

malaparipaka: complete removal of impurity

malina: impure

manana: constant thinking over what has been heard; reflection; meditation; the second of the three stages of Vedantic realization

manas: mind, reason, mentality; also used for the aggregate of chitta, buddhi, manas and ahankara

Manas: (“mind”) the lower mind, which is bound to the senses and yields information (vijnana) rather than wisdom (jnana, vidya)

Mandala (“circle”): a circular design symbolizing the cosmos and specific to spiritual ritual. These symbols are popular in almost every religion. The basic form of most mandalas is a square with four gates containing a circle with a center point. Each gate is in the general shape of a T.

mani: jewel

manolaya: (temporary) subsidence of the mind; dissolution of the mind into its cause

manomaya kosa: sheath of mind

manonasa: extinction of the mind

manonigraha: rendering the mind quiescent

manta: thinker

Mantra: (from the verbal root man “mind” tra “freedom from”) a sacred sound or phrase, such as om, hum, that has a transformative effect on the mind of the individual reciting it.

mantra japa: repetition of a mantra (can include chanting on prayer beads for example) as a means of liberation through meditation

marana: causing death through supernatural powers

marga: path

Marman (“lethal [spot]”): in Ayurveda and yoga, a vital spot on the physical body where energy is concentrated or blocked.

maru marichika: mirage seen in a desert

math (mutt): meeting place; abode of Sadhus

mati: thinking power

Matsyendra: (“Lord of Fish”) the seated revolving twist posture in yoga.

mauna: see mouna

maya: (”Illusion”or”she who measures”) illusion by which the world is seen as our ultimate singular reality and not the spiritual world.

maya vada: the doctrine of maya

Mayavadi: impersonalists- we are all one

mayasakti: the power of maya

medha: intellect

mitha: non-existent

mithya: the false; unreal

moda: joy which is higher than priya

Moksha: (“release”) the condition of freedom from ignorance (avidya) and the binding effect of karma; also called mukti, kaivalya Liberation; freedom from transmigration

moodha: dull

moola: root; source

mooladhara: one of the yogic centers of the body

mouna (mauna): Silence

mouna diksha: initiation by silence

mriga trishna: water of a mirage

Mudra: (“seal”)a hand gesture (such as cin-mudra) or whole-body gesture (such as viparita-karani-mudra)

mukta: one who is liberated

mukti: Liberation

mula: origin; root; base

mulavidya: primal ignorance

mumukshu: one who aspires to Liberation; the first stage, when the seeker feels that there is something beyond this material universe but is still identified with his body-mind; the next stage is that of the sadhaka

mumukshutva: desire for Liberation

muni: (“he who is silent”) a sage; austere person

murti: idol


na medhaya: not by the intellect

nada: the inner sound, as it can be heard through the practice of nada yoga or kundalini yoga

nadasvaram: the pipe of the South Indian piper

nadi(s):; main ones are Ida, Pingala and Sushumna

Nadi: (“conduit”) yogic nerves, or channels through which life-force (prana) circulates. Of over 72,000 subtle channels the three most important ones are the Ida-nadi, pingala-nadi, and sushumna-nadi

Nadi-shodhana: (“channel cleansing”) the practice of purifying the conduits, especially by means of breath control (pranayama)

naham: I am not

naishtika brahmacharya: lifelong celibacy

nama: name; the name of God

nama japa: repetition of the name of God

nama sankirtan: singing the names of God



nama smarana: remembering and repeating the name of God

namarupa: name and form; the nature of the world

namaskar(a): homage; prostration before God or Guru

nana: diversity

Narada: a great sage associated with music, who taught bhakti yoga and is attributed with the authorship of one of two Bhakti-Sutras

naraka: hell

nasa: destruction

Natha: (“lord”)

nava: new

neti-neti: “not this, not that”

nididhyasana: the last of the three stages of vedantic realization; uninterrupted contemplation

nijananda: true bliss

nirasa: desirelessness

nirguna: without attributes

Nirgunabrahman: the impersonal aspect of God

nirguna upasana: meditation on the impersonal aspect of God

nirodha: (“control” or “restriction”): in Patanjali’s eight-limbed yoga, the very basis of the process of concentration, meditation, and ecstasy; in the first instance, the restriction of the “whirls of the mind” (citta-vritti)

nirvana: Liberation; the final state into which beings enter when, becoming Enlightened, they are no longer bound by the consciousness of an illusory ego; release from samsara

nirvikappa: without the modifications of the mind

nisarga: nature

nischala bhava: steadfastness; Eternity

nishkama: without desire

nishkama karma: acts performed without a motive

nishta: steadiness, devotion (often related to mediation)


nitya: eternal

nitya siddha: ever present

nivritti: destruction; cessation of activity

nivritti marga: path of renunciation

Niyama: (“self-restraint”) the second limb of Patanjali’s eightfold path, which consists of purity (saucha), contentment (samtosha), austerity (tapas), study (svadhyaya), and dedication to the Lord (ishvara-pranidhana)

Nyasa: (“placing”) This is a concept that involves sending awareness to specific body parts. The practice may involve reciting mantra and is thought to infuse body parts with prana.

Ojas (“vitality”): the subtle energy produced through practice, especially the discipline of chastity (brahmacharya)

Om: a sacred sound, the original mantra used in contemplation of the ultimate Reality. Often chanted at the commencement and close of a hatha yoga practice.

owpacharika: in a worldly sense


padarthabhavini: absolute non-perception of objects

padmasana: the ‘lotus’ yogic posture

panchakshari: a mantra of five syllables sacred to Siva

pandit: learned man; scholar; man of wisdom

para: higher; supreme; other; in Tantricism, unmanifest sound

para bhakti: supreme devotion

para nadi: a yogic nerve

para vibhuti: superior vibhuti

parabraham: the Absolute

Parabrahman: the Supreme Absolute

param: transcendental

paramahamsa: (“Supreme Swan”) a spiritual teacher or sannyasin who has attained Self-realization

paramakash: the Absolute

paramapada: Supreme state

paramarthika: Absolute; true Self

paramarthika satyam (p. satyan): absolute reality

paramatma(n) or Parama-atman: (“supreme soul”): the transcendental supreme personality of Godhead, which is singular that exists in countless numbers next to the jiva atam in all living beings

paramahansa or Parama-hamsa: (“supreme swan”) an honorific title given to great yogis

paramita: a means of crossing to the further shore, thereby entering Nirvana

paranchi khani: outgoing

parantapa: Arjuna, as ‘he who destroys his enemy’

pareccha: by another’s will

parinama vada: Transformation of energy

parinirvana: beyond nirvana; used to indicate that the concept of nirvana as the blissful opposite of samsara doesn’t point to the final realization

paripurnam: the perfect state

pasaka: meditator; layman who lives according to certain strict rules

paroksha: hearsay; indirect


Patanjali: compiler of the Yoga Sutra, who lived c. 150 C.E, sometimes regarded as the founder of Yoga

phala: fruit; the result of an act

phala chaitanyam: knowledge

phala data: dispenser of the results of our acts

phala sruti: description of the result of an act

Pingala-nadi: (“reddish conduit”): the prana current or arc ascending on the right side of the central channel (sushumna-nadi) and associated with the sympathetic nervous system and having an energizing effect on the mind when activated

pisacha(s): demon(s)

pradakshina: going around a sacred person or place

pradeepta: shining brightly

prajna: consciousness; awareness; highest wisdom, transcendent wisdom

Prajna: (“wisdom”) the opposite of spiritual ignorance (ajnana, avidya)

prajnana: full consciousness

prajnana ghana: Immutable Knowledge

Prakriti: (“creatrix” )nature, nature; primal substance out of which all things are created

Prakriti-laya: (“merging into Nature”) a high-level state of existence that falls short of actual liberation (kaivalya)

pralaya: Dissolution

pramada: swerving from abidance in the Absolute

pramana: means of valid knowledge

pramata(r): knower

pramoda: joy

prana: Prana (“the forward moving air”) is the life energy which keeps the body alive and healthy

pranasakti: the power of the vital forces


pranava: another term for Om

pranava japa: incantation of Om

pranayama: breath control

Pranayama: (from prana and ayama, “life/breath extension”): breath control, the fourth limb (anga) of Patanjali’s eigthfold path, consisting of conscious inhalation (puraka) retention (kumbhaka) and exhalation (recaka); at an advanced state, breath retention occurs spontaneously for longer periods of time

prapatti: surrender

prapti: attainment

prarabdha: the part of one’s karma (destiny) to be worked out in this life

prasad(a): divine blessing; food which has been offered to God and afterwards distributed among the devotees

Prasada: (“grace/clarity”) divine grace; mental clarity

prasthana traya: the threefold canon of Vedanta (Upanishads, Brahma Sutras, and Bhagavad Gita)

pratibhasika satya: illusory reality as it appears to an individual

pratikam: symbol

pratikriya: remedy

pratyabhijna: recognition

pratyahara: withdrawal of senses from objectivity; fifth rung in the Raja Yoga ladder

Pratyahara: sensory inhibition, the fifth limb (anga) of Patanjali’s eightfold path

pratyaksha: direct, immediate

Pratyeka-Buddha: one who achieves Enlightenment on his own and who does not then go forth to preach the Dharma

pravritti: pursuing what is desirable

pravritti marga: path of action

prayaschitta: a rite for expiating sin

prayatna: proper and adequate effort

prema divine love [for God]

preta: a hungry, tantalized ghost, led by evil karma into that sad but temporary state of existence

prithvi: earth

priya: joy; dear

punya: merit

puraka: inhalation

purana: old; eighteen ancient books of stories embodying religious symbolism, attributed to Vyasa

purushottama: Supreme Divine Being

puriashtaka: subtle body consisting of eight phases

puri: city

purna: full; infinite; complete

Puraka: (“filling in”) inhalation, an aspect of breath control (pranayama)

Purana (“Ancient [History]”): a type of popular encyclopedia dealing with royal genealogy, cosmology, philosophy, and ritual; there are eighteen major and many more minor works of this nature. Any of a class of Sanskrit writings not included in the Vedas, characteristically recounting the birth and deeds of gods, God and the creation, destruction, or recreation of the universe

Purusha (“male”): the transcendental Self (atman) or Spirit, a designation that is mostly used in Samkhya and Patanjali’s yoga-darshana Within Samkhya philopsophy, the dualism of two realities, one is Purusha (consciousness) and prakrti (realm of matter).

purushakara: personal effort

purushartha: human ends; objectives worthy of human pursuit (dharma, artha, kama and moksha)

Puja (“worship”): ceremonial worship with flowers, water, etc, which is an important aspect of many forms of yoga, notably bhakti yoga

purva: previous

purva paksha: arguments advanced by the opponent

purva samskara: latent tendencies


Radha: the supreme Godhead Krishna’s spouse; a name of the divine Mother

Raja Yoga: (“Royal Yoga”)the principal system of Yoga as taught by Patanjali

rajas: one of the three primal qualities – described as red, the principle of activity; energy; passion; restlessness

rajju-sarpa: rope-snake; a rope looking like a snake in a dim light

Rama: an incarnation of God Vishnu preceding Krishna; the principal hero of the Ramayana

Ramayana: (“Rama’s life”) one of India’s two great national epics telling the story of Rama

randhra: aperture


rasa: bliss

rasasvada: taste of bliss in the absence of thoughts

ravi marga: path of the sun

rechaka: exhalation or expulsion; an an aspect of breath control (pranayama)

Rig-Veda: see Veda

Rishi: (“seer”) a category of Vedic sage; an honorific title of certain venerated masters

Rudra: Siva in his aspect as Destroyer

rupa: beautiful form


sabdanuviddha: associated with sound

sad guru: true guru

Sada Siva: Siva as eternal goodness

sadhak(a): a spiritual aspirant

Sadhana: the method of spiritual discipline

sadhana-chatushtaya : the four qualifications expected in an aspirant. These include: Discrimination (viveka), Non-attachment (vairagya), Longing (mumukshutva), plus Six virtues (shat sampat) related to training the mind.

sadhu: (“good man”) an ascetic, a wandering monk. Though the majority of sadhus are yogis, not all yogis are sadhus. Dedicated to achieving liberation through mediation and contemplation. Sadhus often wear saffron-colored clothing, symbolizing their sanyasa (renunciation). For a woman who adopts this lifestyle, she is called a sadhvi (“good woman”)

sadhu seva: service rendered to sages

sadhya: thing to be accomplished

sadsisya: true disciple

sadyomukti: immediate Liberation

saguna: with attributes

saguna upasana: meditation on the supreme person

nirguna-Upasana – meditation on the formless and attributeless Brahman)

Sagunabrahman: the Absolute with form and qualities

Sahaja: Cheap imitator

sahasradala: the thousand petalled lotus; center of illumination in crown of the head

sahasrara: the highest yogic center located in the brain

sajatiya: of the same kind

sakama: with desire

sakshat: here and now

sakshatkaram: direct realization

sakshi(n): witness

sakti (shakti): power; energy; force

sakti pata: descent of divine power on a person

sama [sum]: equal, common

samadhi: (“spiritual bliss”) the advanced or ecstatic state of meditation in which the meditator becomes perfectly connected to God; the eighth and final limb (anga) of Patanjali’s eightfold path.

samana: one of the ten vital airs

samanya: common, general, ordinary

samasta: whole

samatva: equality, evenness; the mental condition of harmony, balance



sambodhi: Supreme Enlightenment

sambogakaya: the body in which Enlightened Beings can appear to other beings in insubstantial form

samjna: discernment

samjnana: awareness; perception

samkalpa(s): fancies

samrajya: empire

samsara (“confluence”) the finite world of change; the process of worldly life; the bondage of life, death and rebirth

samskara(s): karmic inheritance of mental and emotional patterns through which we cycle over and over again during our lives, can be positive or negative

samskrta: the impermanent; Chinese wu wei in Buddhism Things that are conditioned or brought into being by contributory causes.

samvid: true awareness

samvit : consciousness; knowledge

samyak-sambodhi: Supreme Enlightenment

samyamana: one-pointedness of mind

sanchita (s. karma): is one of the three kinds of karma. sanchita karma is the accumulation of all karma – good and bad, from one’s past lives that follow through to the next life and still remains to be experienced

sandeha: doubt

sanga: association; brotherhood

sangsara: see samsara

sankalpa : an intention or call to awakening; over time a personal sankalpa can shift one’s samskaras (tendencies and attachments)

Samkhya (“Number”): Founded by the great sage Kapila, one of the oldest Indian philosophies.

Samnyasa (“casting off”): the disciple of renunciation, which is the fourth and final stage of life (see ashrama) and consisting primarily in an inner turning away from all l involvement in all worldly pursuits and seeks only the attainment of Self-realization.

Samyama: (“constraint”) the combined practice of concentration (dharana), meditation (dhyana), and ecstasy (samadhi) in regard to the same object

Samnyasin: (“he who has cast off”) a renouncer

sannidhi: presence

sannyasa (sanyasa): asceticism, renunciation

sannyasasrama: the last of the four stations of life

sannyasi(n): an ascetic; one who belongs to the fourth stage of life

santi: peace

santodanta: one who is calm and self-controlled



sanyasin: see sannyasin

sarira: body

sariri: dweller in the body

sarira traya: the three bodies, namely the physical, subtle and causal

sarupa : with form; having form

sarva: all

sarvajna: omniscient

sarvajnatvam : omniscience

Sarvesvara the supreme Lord

sastra (shastra) : scripture; science; a sacred treatise or a commentary on a sutra

Sat being/reality/truth

sat-chit-ananda: Eternal, knowledge and bliss

Sat-sanga: (“company of Truth” or “association with the wise”) The practice of frequenting the good company of saints, sages, Self-realized adepts, and their disciples, in whose company the ultimate Reality can be felt more palpably

sattva: purity; one of the three primal qualities of prakriti – described as white

Satya: (“truth/truthfulness”): truth, a designation of the ultimate Reality; also the practice of truthfulness, which is an aspect of moral discipline (yama)

sattvapatti: realization

sattvic: pure

satya : Truth

sayujya: Union; identity

shadadhara: the six yogic centers

Shakti: Power

Shakti-pata: (“descent of power”) Transferring of benign spiritual “energy” upon one person by another. Conferred by an advanced or even enlightened adept (siddha) to a disciple, by awakening disciple’s shakti – initiating process of liberation

Shankara: (“He who is benevolent”) the eighth-century adept who was responsible for the decline of Buddhism in India

shastra: see sastra

Shishya: (“student/disciple”)the initiated disciple of a guru

Shiva: He who is eternal or pure


Shiva-Sutra: (“Shiva’s Aphorisms”) like the Yoga Sutra of Patanjali, a classical work on yoga, as taught in the Shaivism of Kashmir; authored by Vasugupta (ninth century C.E.)

Shodhana: (“cleansing/purification”) a fundamental aspect of all yogic paths; a category of purification practices in hatha yoga

Shraddha: (“faith”) an essential disposition on the yogic path, which must be distinguished from mere belief

Shuddhi: (“purification/purity”) the state of purity; a synonym of shodhana


sthula: gross

sthula sarira: physical body

stotram: hymn of praise

stuti: devotional singing

subhechcha: desire for enlightenment

suddha: pure

suddha sattva: essentially pure

suddha sattva svarupaL the form of purity

sukha: happiness

sukha asana: sweet, easy, and comfortable sitting posture

sukshma: subtle

sukshma sarira: subtle body

sunya: blank; the Void

sunyavadin: nihilist

Sushumna-nadi: (“very gracious channel”): one of the primary yogic nerves, through which the kundalini rises

sushupti (susupti): dreamless sleep

Sutra: (“thread” or “string”) sacred writings such as Patanjali’s Yoga Sutra

suvasana: good tendency

Svadhyaya: (“one’s own going into”) self-study; an important aspect of the yogic path, listed among the practices of self-restraint (niyama) in Patanjali’s eightfold yoga

svagata: within itself

svami: see swami

svapna: dream; dreaming state

svarga: heaven

svaroopa (swarupa): essential nature; true nature of Being; real form, unconditioned by rajas (activity) and tamas (inertia)

svarupa nishta: abidance in the soul

swami : mystic or yogi; one who is in control of himself

swaraj: independence

swatantra: independence

swechcha: of one’s own will

siddha: (“one who is accomplished”) Meaning varies depending on tradition, but essentially means a perfected Yogi or an adept.

Siddhi: paranormal ability, of which the yoga tradition knows many kinds

sila: the moral precepts observed by Buddhism

sishya: disciple; fit student

sloka: a stanza in Sanskrit; a verse of praise

Skanda: younger son of Shiva; leader of the divine hosts

skandha: one of the five components (skandhas) of personality; inherited tendencies, physical and mental

smriti: memory; scriptures other than the Vedas

Spanda: vibration

sparsa: touch

sphurana (sphurna): manifestation; throbbing or breaking; bursting forth; vibration

sraddha: faith; earnestness

sravaka: one who approaches the Dharma as a result of hearing it preached

sravana: hearing of the Truth, from the Guru

srishti drishti: gradual creation

srota: hearer

srotra: ear

sruti: sacred text; Vedas, heard by sages in their transcendental state and transmitted to disciples by word of mouth

sthitaprajna: one established in wisdom

sthiti: being; existing


tadakaranilai: abiding in the form of God

taijasa: the individual being in dream; brilliance

tamas: (“indifference”) In the Samkhya school of philosophy tamas is one of three gunas (or primal qualities), the other two being rajas (passion and activity) and sattva (purity and goodness). Tamas is associated with darkness, ignorance, sloth, inertia or resistance to action.

tanha: (“thirst”) a craving or desire to stay with positive experiences and be removed from painful or unpleasant experiences. In the first teaching of the Buddha on the Four Noble Truths, the Buddha identified tanha as a main force in the arising of dukkha (suffering, anxiety, dissatisfaction).

tanmatra(s) : elements in their subtle forms (sound feel, aspect, taste, smell)

tanmaya: Absorbed

tanmaya nishta: abidance with God



tanumanasa: Attenuation of mental activities

Tantra: (“Loom”) a type of Sanskrit text that contains esoteric teachings; tantric literature is focuses on the shakti side of spiritual life and originated in the early post-Christian era and achieved its classical features around 1000 C.E. Tantrism has a “right-hand” (dakshina) or conservative and a “left-hand” (vama) or unconventional/antinomian branch, with the latter utilizing, among other things, sexual rituals for raising one kundalini.

Tapas: (“heat” or “ardour”) an ascetic practice in order to achieve spiritual purification. Contemporary usage often associated with yogic discipline towards moksha. Included in these physical austerities are activities such as fasting, the holding of difficult and often painful bodily postures, vigils kept in the presence of fires or extreme cold, and breath control.

tapobhrashta: one who has fallen away from his austerities

tapta-aya-pindavat: like a red-hot iron ball

Tat: That; Brahman

Tathagata: (“one who has thus come”) a word that the Buddha uses when referring to himself

tathata: (“thusness” or “suchness”), a central concept of Buddhism, particularly important in Zen; “suchness” is often related in the seemingly simple or ordinary

tattva: truth; essence of a thing conceived as an aspect of deity

tattva bhoda: knowledge of the Truth

tattva jnana: knowledge of God

tattvam: Reality; Truth

tejas: radiance

tejo rupa: of the form of light

tejomaya: full of light

tirtha: (“a shallow part of a body of water that may be easily crossed”) a pilgrimage site; crossing this ford represents crossing over from worldly engagement to nirvana.

Tripitaka: earliest collection of Buddhist teachings that make up the Buddhist canon;the Tripitaka was handed down orally, then written down in the third century B.C.E; translates to “three baskets” from the way it was originally recorded on long interwoven leaves; comprised of three parts: Vinaya Pitaka (Discipline Basket), Sutra Pitaka (Discourse Basket), and Abhidharma Pitaka (Higher Knowledge or Special Teachings Basket)



triputi : triad like seer, seen and seeing

turavu: renunciation

turiya: the fourth state beyond waking, dreaming and deep sleep; ever present and unchanging witness-Consciousness

turiyatita: beyond the fourth state; the Self

turyaga: beyond words; one of the seven stages of enlightenment

tyaga: renunciation


udana prana: ascending energy that flows from the heart to the head and brain

udasinam: indifference

upadesa: instruction or guidance of a Guru

upadhi: body-related


Upanisad(s): (“sitting near”) philosophical writings forming part of the Vedas

upasana: meditation; contemplation

upasana sthana: seat of meditation

Upaya: (“means”) in Buddhist yoga, the practice of compassion (karuna)

uttama: highest grade


vac (vak): speech

vachyartha: literal meaning

vada: theory; disputation

vaikhari: audible sound

Vaikunth: the abode of Vishnu

Vairagya: (“dispassion”): the attitude non-attachment in particular towards the pains and pleasures of the material world (maya)

Vaishnavite (Vaishnav): worshipper of Vishnu

vajra: symbolic ritual object that symbolizes both the indestructible nature of a diamond and the irresistible force of a thunderbolt

Vajrayana: the school of Mahayana Buddhism prevalent in Tibet and Mongolia, commonly called Lamaism in the West

varistha: the most excellent

varnasrama dharma: dharma of the various castes and stages of life

vasana: karmic imprint; behavioural predisposition and mental habits which influences one’s present behaviour and outlook; a technical term in Dharmic traditions, particularly Buddhist philosophy and Advaita Vedanta

vasana kshaya: discontinuation of vasanas

vastu: substance; reality

vastutah: in reality



Vasudeva: Krishna as the son of Vasudeva, the Lord who created the world

vayu: air; vital breath; the Wind god

Veda: sacred knowledge; scriptures revealed through the Rishis (Rig, Yajur, Sama and Atharva Vedas)

vedana: reception of sensation

Vedanta: absolute Truth as established by the Upanishads, Brahma Sutras, and Bhagavad Gita as interpreted by Vyasa; the end or consummation of the Vedas

veena: a stringed instrument

vibhakti: separation

vibhuti: sacred ashes made of dried wood, worn by devoteesof gods or the supreme God; worn on forehead and other parts of the body


vichara: inquiry into the true nature of the Self

vichara marga: spiritual path of inquiry

vicharana: inquiry; one of the seven stages of enlightenment

videha mukti: (“liberation without the body”) signifies moksha (liberation) attained after death

vidya: knowledge (of Brahman)

vijatiya: of a different kind

vijnana: consciousness; the mind

vijnanamaya kosa: envelope of the intellect

vijnanatma: the ignorant self

vijnata: knower

vikalpa(s): doubt(s)

vikshepa: diversity

vikshipta: distracted

vinaya: monastic discipline practiced by the Buddhist community

viparita: inverted

virat: macrocosm; totality of gross beings; the physical world

virya: zeal; vitality

visesha: particular; special

vishaya: object

Vishnu: The supreme personality of Godhead worshipped as the protector and preserver of the world and restorer of Dharma.

vishya vasana(s): predisposition toward sense enjoyments

visishta : qualified


visranti: repose

visva: the individual being in the waking state

visvarupa (v. darsana): All form

vivechana: discrimination

viveka: wisdom; discrimination between the Real and the unreal

viyoga: separation; giving up

vritti: turning of the mind

vyakta: manifested

vyakti: manifested entity

vyana: one of the five major Pranas; responsible for blood circulation and nervous system coordination.

vyaptam: pervaded

Vyasa: the great sage who wrote the Brahma Sutras

vyashti: individual

vyavahara: (“doubt removal”) a type of empirical proceeding within Hinduism; can range from everyday transactions to more formal legal procedures such as a trial

yaga: ritualistic sacrifice



yajna: sacrifice

yama: “restraint” or guidelines of yogic living, which include nonviolence, truthfulness, nonstealing, nonexcess and nonposessiveness

yoga: to yoke with G-d



yoga marga(s): yogic path(s)

yoga maya: the mystical, inner potency of Lord Krishna.

yogabhrashta: one who has slipped from yoga

yogarudha: one who has freed their attachments to sense objects and rid themselves of their desires and possesses a steady and tranquil

yogi: a practitioner of yoga

Yogiraja: title of the Lord Shiva meaning “King of Yoga”

yugapat srishti: simultaneous creation